Acrobat Reader if you don't have it already) with the A.S.H.A. Position
Papers -- SLPs
.. Reading & Writing, and the SLPs..
Pivotal Role, we can justify our programs to ourselves and to our schools.
. . Theory Base: Narratives
are important because they engage students in learning activities that
support oral and written language development concurrently and interrelatedly;
they provide a bridge between oral communication - regulating social interaction,
and writing - providing information. With narratives, Speech Pathologists
support development of specific language skills, provide repeated exposure
to concepts and teach literate styles of language use. Describing experiences,
explaining events in sequence, participating in group discussion, retelling
stories, drawing conclusions, predicting outcomes, interpreting figurative
language, developing vocabulary, differentiating between realism and fantasy,
fact and opinion - all fit within our district's language arts goals. The
internet has literature available about "emergent
literacy" that is interesting for Speech Language Pathologists too.
. . Benefits of Reading Aloud:
Researchers and educators recommend that adults habitually read aloud to
students. Interactive Reading Aloud - story reader and children engage
in joint act of reading and talking to share meanings, make meanings accessible
to children by providing scaffolding, or support, encourage children to
think on more abstract level, guide children toward use of more complex
language structures and vocabulary than they would use independently. Interactive
Reading Aloud teaches 'story grammar' that helps children understand and
remember new stories - "developing a sense of story is a basic facet of
the child's way of remembering".
. . From there, I added "Story
Stretchers for the Primary Grades" (Gryphon House Publ., Mt Rainier,
MD) by Shirley Raines & Robert Canady, "Scamper Strategies"
(Thinking Publ.) by Carol Esterrreicher (for a little older kids), and
"Story Making" (Thinking Publ.) by Robin Peura & Carolyn DeBoer
(for younger kids). I also used a Cooperative Learning book, "Lessons
for Little Ones" (Kagan Publ.) by Lorna Curran for ideas. Many of the
Cooperative Learning type activities are excellent language activities
too, a great bonus from an SLP's point of view. Then I started looking
at picture storybooks from all of their lists. Some were out of print,
some seemed dull, and I just didn't like some of the others. But there
are many wonderful picture books available, and these resources will help
you get started. Books for older children typically have fewer illustrations,
but attractive pictures may help a child explore reading and language.
. . I began small the first
year, with one first grade teacher and one kindergarten teacher. By mid-year,
another first grade teacher was asking for me to come in her classroom
too - whew! a vote of approval! Now I am working with kindergarten, first
and second grades. Using leads from the sources I've mentioned, I look
for books with imagination, rich vocabulary, appealing pictures, rhyme
and rhythm, some with predictable repetitions, creative twists and endings.
Our school's goal has been to increase reading scores -- showing children
how much fun that reading can be as important as drilling on skills. So
I try to read with lots of expression, and ham it up a little. Books
and reading are fun!
. . A story might go like this:
** The teacher remains
with the class, helping with 'crowd control' until you are comfortable,
and stays available in the classroom always!! ** Class sits on the
floor in story area. I've found that the students stay focused better sitting
up close to you, rather than letting them sit at their desks. If you don't
know all of the children by name well enough, one method is to use craft
sticks labeled with each child's name to make sure everyone gets a chance
to contribute. Most stories and follow-up will take about 20 to 30 minutes,
projects with drawing and writing a little more.
. . Show the book, and begin
by asking what the class can tell by looking at the cover. Who or what
might the story be about? What do you think might happen? Can you tell
if this is a real story or an imagination story? how?
. . Read the story. Discuss
difficult vocabulary as it occurs, predict and imagine. Get the class involved
and interacting with the story and characters. Let the children talk as
spontaneously as possible without losing control - sometimes, it's a pretty
fine line. But this is another skill you and they will learn.
. . After the story, retell
the sequence of events, or recount the characters, details, and conclusion.
Have the children relate the story in some way to their own experiences,
or ask what they might do if . . . Review Bloom's Taxonomy - your questions
must go beyond the yes/no, who and what facts. Use scaffolding of answers.
If a child gets stuck, they can "phone a friend". You can expand by having
the class write and illustrate "If I were . . I would . . ." With some
stories, withhold the conclusion, and have the class write and illustrate
their own idea of how the story might end. Encourage creativity. Let the
children show off their creations.
. ."The Magic of Stories
has many more structures and ideas for using literature for language development,
and many other resource books will give you ideas - but these are some
of my favorite books. I've arranged the stories by grade level as I use
them, but many could slide up or down.
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"What Do You Do With a
Kangaroo?" Mercer Mayer. Wonderful rhythm and language, with predictable
repetitive lines. This story is especially good at the beginning of the
year to catch the attention of the class.
"Jamberry" Bruce Degan.
Rhythm and rhyme. Read through, then again line at a time as a group chant
"Sheep In a Jeep", "Sheep
On a Ship", "Sheep In a Shop", "Sheep Trick or Treat"" Nancy Shaw.
Cute drawings, simple story lines that rhyme, rhyme, rhyme. Beep,
"Quick As A Cricket"
Audrey Wood. Painless introduction to similes. Then have students
think of something 'as green as..', 'as big as...' Use HELP II materials
"A House Is A House For
Me" Mary Ann Hoberman. Rhyme and think-stretching. Draw houses - a
tree, the ocean, a school - and decide what they could be houses for.
"Pigs" Robert Munsch.
Speaking of pigs.... a lively story about a little girl who lets the family
pigs out of the pen. They swarm through the house, the school, ...
when you ask kindergartners to draw their favorite part, and write the
key words, many will choose the part where the pigs hijack the school bus...
They are really pleased when they can sound out and write p-i-g and b-u-s.
"Good Dog, Carl" Alexandra
Day. A wonderful wordless book. Show the students the pictures, then have
them take turns telling the story, one page at a time.
"That's Good! That's Bad"
Margery Cuyler. and "Over the Steamy Swamp" by Paul Geraghty. These
introduce the concept of circular stories.
"Raising Dragons" Jerdine
Nolen. A little girl discovers a dragon egg, with interesting consequences.
Ever eaten dragon-popped popcorn?
"Three Billy Goats Gruff"
Ted Dewan. The Janet Stevens version is right for kindergarten, but first
graders enjoys this tougher version of the tale.
David Small. Vocabulary and prediction. Withhold ending, and
the kids make their own. Or show the ending, have them discuss, or
write and illustrate "If I had feathers, I would . . ." Make a class
book. Another idea - use a scanner to place student's work on computer
screen - as a Power Point slide show, or as a screen saver, or on on the
class web page!
"Hailstones and Halibut
Bones" Mary O'Neil. Read several different color poems while the children
close their eyes, listening for imagery. It may be poetry, but it's amazing
how well even first graders get in the mood. Have the class illustrate
&/or write about other colors that weren't read aloud, and share ideas.
"Paper Bag Princess"
Robert Munsch. Discuss characters, retell the sequence of events, ask opinions
about the prince and princess. First graders can write and illustrate favorite
part of the story. Would you marry someone like Prince Ronald?
"Goldilocks and the Three
Bears" I laminated drawings for the story that I found at a teacher's
supply store, and used them in a variety of activities - having children
figure the correct sequence, then retell the story. Or the class can discuss
"what if . . ," "was it right that . . ," "what should . . ." type questions
"Deep in the Forest"
Brinton Turkle. A wordless retelling of the Goldilocks story, reversed
with a baby bear in Goldilock's place. Make sure the students know the
Goldilocks story. Then show the Deep in the Forest pictures, silently first,
then give each child a chance to tell a frame of the story. Withhold ending
the last page, and have children draw and write their own ending. My favorite
was a first grade boy who drew a silver bear in the tree - he was wearing
armor so no one could shoot him!
Steven Kellogg. Withhold ending, have class predict their own. Have them
begin with "The egg hatched, and it was a . . .", then write more about
whatever it was. Let them illustrate, and bind all the papers together
to make a class book which becomes available in the class library. Teachers
report these are re-read eagerly.
"Do Not Open" Brinton
Turkle. A lady and her cat find an unusual bottle on the beach after a
storm, then they outsmart the dangerous genie inside. Ask Where did the
bottle come from? Why did she open the bottle? What happened to the person
who found it last time?....
"Three Little Pigs", "Hansel
and Gretel", and "Cinderella" James Marshall. Good illustrations,
enjoyable versions of our basic tales, good at first grade level.
"Three Little Wolves and
the Big Bad Pig" Eugene Trivizas. This story turns the 3 little pigs
story on it's head. The children can compare and contrast this fanciful
story with the original.
Margery Williams. Read the story, then have the students retell the sequence
of events. This story also lends itself to developing The Characters, The
Problems, The Solution, with age appropriate writing or drawings. Actually,
I've just about given up on this story... I can't read it without getting
"If You Give a Mouse a
Cookie", ".. a Moose a Muffin", ".. a Pig a Pancake" Laura Numeroff.
They are fast, so you can read all three, and then have students make their
own circle story. Set up the four edges of a sheet of paper with 1) If
you give a mouse a flower 2) he will ... 3) then he will ... 4) then he
will ...(and back to needing a flower again.) After I discussed the concept
of a circle story, one boy told me the paper made it a square story....
"Wilfrid Gordon McDonald
Partridge" Mem Fox. After the story, class sits in circle and pass